Primary Sources

Collections and Papers From the Bentley Historical Library (BHL) and the Joseph Labadie Collection (JLC) held at Special Collections, University of Michigan.

Individuals' papers and collections below comprise mainly scrapbooks, letters, correspondences, news paper clippings, personal diaries, etc, during and around WWI period. These individuals were involved in the war in one way or the other. Some had direct experiences as soldiers, or they served in other war related capacities, some were University of Michigan staff and officials who played vital roles in the war, some actually resisted the war.

Frederick Clever Bald Papers (BHL)

Ray E. Bassett Scrapbook (BHL)

Andrew Babicki Collection (BHL)

Leo Beslock Papers (BHL) 

Roy Dikeman Chapin (BHL)

Clippert Family Papers (BHL)

Crawford Family Papers, 1898 and 1917-1919 (BHL)

Ernest B. Drake Papers (BHL)

Arthur W. Ehrlicher Papers (BHL)

Warren W. Florer Papers (BHL)

James C. Foster Papers  (BHL) 

Rudolph H. Gjelsness Papers (BHL) 

Harold Studley Gray Papers (BHL)

Lucia Isabelle Voorhees Grimes (BHL) 

Haughey Family Correspondence (BHL)

Ford A. Hinchman Papers (BHL)

William Herbert Hobbs Papers (BHL)

Agnes Inglis Papers (JLC)

Henry Bourne Joy Papers (BHL) 

Kelsey Museum of Archaeology Papers, 1890-1979 (BHL)

James Frederick Lawton papers   1908-1969 (BHL)

Thomas Francis McAllister Papers (BHL)

Samuel Dewitt Pepper Papers (BHL)

Carl Ernest Schmidt Scrapbooks (BHL)

Rebecca Shelley Papers (BHL)

Sligh Family Papers (BHL)

Claude Halstead Van Tyne Papers (BHL)

William Edward Votruba Papers (BHL)

Louis C. Walker Papers (BHL)

Clifford Wilcox Papers (BHL)


Institutional and Organizational  Records

Senate (University of Michigan) Records (BHL)

Women’s League of the University of Michigan (BHL)


Published Primary Sources 

In addition to a large collection of family papers and individual collections, the team examined published primary sources held by University of Michigan library, including newspapers, student publications, yearbooks, etc. 

Atkins, H. E. Souvenir, Camp Custer, Michigan. Battle Creek, Mich.: Atkins Engraving Co., 1918. 

Carl E.W.L Dahlstrom, Sent to Hell from Ann Arbor: A College Student’s World War One. Portland: Quaker Abbey Press. 

The Michigan Daily 

The Michigan Alumnus

The Ann Arbor News

The Ann Arbor Daily Times

The Detroit Free Press


Secondary Sources Consulted

Alonso, Harriet Hyman. "Gender and Peace Politics in the First World War United States: The People's Council of America." The International History Review 19 (1997): 83-102

Bartlett Crane, Caroline. History of the Work of the Women's Committee (Michigan Division), Council of National Defense During the World War. n.p.:1922.

Berlatsky, Noah. "What Makes America So Prone to Intervention." in The Atlantic (2013).

Bordin, Ruth and Birgitta Anderson. Women at Michigan: The "Dangerous Experiment," 1870s to the Present. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1999.

Bourke, Joanna.  “Gender Role on the Killing Fields.”  In The Cambridge History of the First World War, edited by Jay Winter, 157-178. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015. 

Ceadel, Martin.  “Pacifism.” In The Cambridge History of the First World War, edited by Jay Winter, 576-605. Cambridge:  Cambridge University Press, 2015. 

Chatfield, Charles. “World War I and the Liberal Pacifists in the United States.” The American Historical Review 75 (1970): 1920-1937.

Dahlstrom, Carl E.W.L. Sent to Hell from Ann Arbor: A College Student's World War One. Portland, OR: Quaker Abbey Press, 2009.

Donnelly, Walter A.  Shaw, Wilfred B., and Ruth Gjelsness, The University of Michigan: An Encyclopedic Survey. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 1958.

Downs, Laura Lee.  “War Work. ”  In The Cambridge History of the First World War, edited by Jay Winter, 72-95.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015. 

Grayzel, Susan R.  “Men and Women at Home.”  In The Cambridge History of the First World War, edited by Jay Winter, 96-120. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015. 

Gutierrez, Edward A. Doughboys on the Great War: How American soldiers viewed their Military Experience. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2014.

Higonnet, Margaret R. “At the Front.”  In The Cambridge History of the First World War, edited by Jay Winter, 121-152. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015. 

Hobbs, William Herbert.  The World War and Its Consequences. New York, NY.: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1919.

Horne, John and  Kramer John. German Atrocities, 1914: a History of Denial. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2001.

Irwin, Julia F. "Taming Total War: Great War-Era American Humanitarianism and its Legacies." Diplomatic History 38 (2014): 763-775.

Irwin, Julia F. "Teaching 'Americanism with a World Perspective': the Junior Red Cross in the U.S. Schools from 1917 to the 1920s."  History of Education Quarterly 53 (2013): 255-79.

Irwin, Julia F.  Making the World Safe: the American Red Cross And a Nation's Humanitarian Awakening. New York: Oxford University Press, 2013.

Jensen, Kimberley. "Women's Mobilization for War (USA)." In 1914-1918-online. International Encyclopedia of the First World War, edited by Ute Daniel, Peter Gatrell, Oliver Janz, Heather Jones, Jennifer Keene, Alan Kramer, and Bill Nasson. Berlin: Freie Universität Berlin, 2014. 

Keene, Jennifer D. "Fighting the Great War: Reconsidering the American Soldier Experience."  Historically Speaking 13 (2012): 7-9.

Kennedy, David, Over Here: The First World War and American Society. New York: Oxford University Press, 1980.

Kennedy, Kathleen. "Declaring War on War: Gender and the American Socialist Attack on Militarism, 1914-1918." Journal of Women's History 7 (1995): 27-51.

Kévorkian,  Raymond H. The Armenian Genocide: a Complete History. London: I. B. Tauris, 2011.

Lepore, Jill. "Historians Who Love Too Much: Reflections on Michrohistory and Biology."  The Journal of American History 88 (2001): 129-144.

Little, Branden. "An Explosion of New Endeavours: Global Humanitarian responses to Industrialized Warfare in the First World War Era." First World War Studies 5 (2014).

Marwill, Jonathan. A History of Ann Arbor. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1991.

Peckham, Howard. The Making of the University of Michigan, 1817-1992. Ann Arbor: Bentley Historical Library, University of Michigan, 1994.

Pedley, John Griffiths. The Life And Work of Francis Willey Kelsey: Archaeology, Antiquity, And the Arts. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2012.

Pferdehirt, Julia. More than Petticoats; Remarkable Michigan Women. Guilford, Conn.: Two Dot, 2007.

Rockoff, Hugh. "Until It's Over, Over There: The US Economy in World War I," in The Economics of World War I, edited by Stephen Broadberry and Mark Harrison. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

Suny, Ronald Grigor "They Can Live In the Desert but Nowhere Else": a History of the Armenian Genocide. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2015.

Claude H. Van Tyne. “Democracy's Educational Problem," Michigan History Magazine, 3 (1919): 82-92.

Walzer, Michael. "On Humanitarianism: Is Helping Others Charity, Duty, or Both?" Foreign Affairs, (2011). 

Wilcox, Clifford, "World War I and the Attack on Professors of German at the University of Michigan."  1992, TS,  Clifford Wilcox Papers (BHL).

Williams, Brian A. Michigan on the March: The University of Michigan in WWII. Ann Arbor: BHL,  University of Michigan,  1995.

Winter, Jay.  Remembering War: The Great War Between History and Memory in the Twentieth Century. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006.