Divestment for Humanity: The Anti-Apartheid Movement at the University of Michigan



The Agenda

The Ann Arbor News

The Chicago Defender

The Detroit Free Press

The Globe and Mail

The Huffington Post

The Michigan Daily

The New York Times

The State News

The University Record

The Wall Street Journal

The Washington Post 


Bentley Historical Library, University of Michigan

Proceedings of the Board of Regents

Thomas Roach Papers

Sarah Goddard Power Papers

Perry Bullard Papers

William Milliken Papers

University of Michigan Senate Assembly, Meeting Minutes

Guild House Records 1924-2005

Center for Afro-American and African Studies Records

Vertical File- South Africa Divestment

Vertical File- United Coalition Against Racism

Michigan Daily Photo Archive

Joseph A. Labadie Collection, Special Colllections Library, University of Michigan

Political Posters, Labadie Collection

Pinback Buttons, Labadie Collection

Online Resources

ProQuest Historical Newspapers

HathiTrust Digital Library

Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States

Ronald Reagan Presidential Library

The American Presidency Project


African Activist Archive Project

Forward to Freedom: The History of the British Anti-Apartheid Movement, 1959-1994, <aamarchives.org>

"Apartheid," <history.com/topics/apartheid>

South African History Online, "Liberation Struggles in South Africa," <http://www.sahistory.org.za/article/apartheid-and-reactions-it>

USSALEP, "What is USSALEP?" home.intekom.com

"South Africa: Overcoming Apartheid, Building Democracy," <http://overcomingapartheid.msu.edu/index.php>

Secondary Sources

Apartheid South Africa and The Soweto Rebellion Course Pack, Hofstra University

Documentary: have you heard from Johannesburg. Connie Field, Have You Heard from Johannesburg, (Disc X) DVD, Directed by Connie Field, (Franklin Lakes, NJ : Clarity Educational Productions, 2006)

Eric Hendey, "Does Divestment Work?": Harvard University Institute of Politics

Francis Njubi Nesbitt, Race for Sanctions: African Americans against Apartheid, 1946-1994 (Blacks in the Diaspora) (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2004).

Janice Love, The U.S. Anti-Apartheid Movement: Local Activism in Global Politics, (New York: Praeger, 1985).

Sifiso Mxolisi Ndlovu, "The Soweto Uprising" in The Road to Democracy in South Africa. (Cape Town: Zebra Press, 2004).

David Hostetter, Movement Matters: American Antiapartheid Activism and the Rise of Multicultural Politics (Routledge, 2009).

Philip Frankel, An Ordinary Atrocity: Sharpeville and its Massacre (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001)

Todd Gitlin, The Sixties: Years of Hope, Days of Rage (New York: Bantam Books, Inc., 1987)

Marc Fisher, "The Second Coming of Student Activism: Showdown over South Africa," Change (Feb. 1979), 26-30. 

William Minter, Gail Hovey, and Charles Cobb Jr., eds., No Easy Victories: African Liberation and American Activists over a Half-Century, 1950-2000 (Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 2007), noeasyvictories.org.

The South Africa Catalyst Project, Anti-Apartheid Organizing on Campus...And Beyond (Palo Alto, CA: The South Africa Catalyst Project, 1978).

Alex Thomson, U.S. Foreign Policy Towards Apartheid South Africa, 1948-1994 (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008)



Matthew Countryman, In-Person Interview conducted by Emily Bodden, Emilie Neumeier, Leslie Teng, Aaron Szulczewski, and Mario Goetz, Date

Debi Duke, Email Interview conducted by Emily Bodden, March 15, 2015.

Heidi Gottfried, In-Person Interview conducted by Emily Bodden and Aaron Szulczewski, April 9, 2015.

Tom Hayden, Email Interview conducted by Mario Goetz, April 17, 2015.

Ansell Horn, Email Interview conducted by Mario Goetz, April 26, 2015.

Josué Njock Libii, Email Interview conducted by Mario Goetz, April 15, 2015.

Alice Preketes, In-Person Interview conducted by Mario Goetz, April 6, 2015.

Joel Samoff, Skype Interview conducted by Aaron Szulczewski and Mario Goetz, May 7, 2015.

Alan Wald, Email Interview conducted by Emilie Neumeier, April 17, 2015.